If you still don’t know the importance of a powder detergent; maybe you should ask a mother of four. Then you will know, ‘powder detergents’, are the life saver! Irrespective of your perspective to life; you will agree with me that cleanliness is next to godliness. No wonder; Nigerian parents don’t joke with powder detergent.
That aside, there are companies who already made fortune in the business. The likes of Omo, Klin and Ariel will not want anybody to dare to go into this line of business because it’s a gold mine to them.
Sometimes last year, someone contacted me through earnbase and requested if I can help him get a machine that dries detergent and make it smoother; this was necessary because the cost of importing one was very high…
When I look at the number of home use we have discussed on earnbase; I marvel!! On this blog, we have discussed how to make liquid soap, jik, bleach, perfume, bar soap, vaseline, liquid hand wash, car wash liquid soap and many more
Today, I will be teaching you how to make powder detergent but before then I will like to start with some definition of terms. I hope you give me 100% attention here!
What is actually a detergent?
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with “cleaning properties in dilute solutions. These substances are usually alkyl benzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxylate (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water – by the almighty Wikipedia.
In another word; a detergent is a cleaning agent that helps to remove dirt and grease from the porous surface (such as fabric, cloths, not-treated wood) and/or non-porous surface (such as materials, plastics, and treated wood). All detergents are made principally of soaps or surfactants.
What are surfactants?
You might think water gets you wet—and it does. But it doesn’t get you nearly as wet as it might. That’s because it has something called surface tension. Water molecules prefer their own company so they tend to stick together in drops. When rain falls on a window, it doesn’t wet the glass uniformly: instead, it sticks to the surface in distinct droplets that gravity pulls down in streaks. To make water wash better, we have to reduce its surface tension so it wets things more uniformly. And that’s precisely what a surfactant does.
The surfactants in detergents improve water’s ability to wet things, spread over surfaces, and deep into dirty clothes fibers.
Surfactants do another important job too. One end of their molecule is attracted to water, while the other end is attracted to dirt and grease. So the surfactants molecules help water to get a hold of grease, break it up, and wash it away.
Often we use the words “soap” and “detergent” interchangeably, but really they’re quite different things. A detergent is a chemical substance you use to break up and remove grease and grime, while soap is simply one kind of detergent. Soap has a long history and was originally made from purely natural products like goat’s fat and wood ash.
Types of Detergents
Detergents are classified into three broad groups, depending on the electrical charge of the surfactants.
- Anionic detergents
- Cationic detergents
- Non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents
Today, I shall be teaching the Anionic detergent!
Materials Needed to produce Detergent
- Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) ————————– 5Liters
- Soda Ash —————————————— 1kg
- Caustic Soda ————————————– 1kg + 4liters of water
- Sulphuric Acid ———————————— 1liter
- Catalyst (Hydrogen Peroxide) —————- As desired
- Ammonia Solution —————————– 1liter
- Color ———————————————– As desired
- Perfume ——————————————- As desired
Differences between Sulphonic and Sulphuric
Aside from the differences in spelling; there are two reasons why some people chose Sulphonic over Sulphuric vise visa.
- Sulphonic acid is more dangerous when compared to sulphuric.
- Sulphuric acid acts faster.
Please note, at this stage, your mixture begins to dry up, harden and break down. That is why you need to be fast with whatever you intend to add next. Quickly add your color and perfume if you have not added it earlier.
Steps Required to Produced Detergent
Step 1: Get two big buckets which are 25liters each; Bucket A and Bucket B
Step 2: Pure 5liters of PKO in the first Bucket A
Step 3: Pure 4 liters of water into the second Bucket B
Step 4: Add 1kg of Caustic Soda into Bucket B
Step 5: Add the colorants into Bucket A
Step 6: Add perfume to Bucket A
Step 7: Add soda Ash into Bucket A
Step 8: Add hydrogen into Bucket A as a catalyst
Step 9: Add 1kg of Sulphuric acid into Bucket A
Step 10: Now turn the other bucket, containing caustic soda solution (BUCKET B) into Bucket A.
Step 11: Add ammonia solution into Bucket A to turn down the heat.
Step 12: Leave the mixture to dry or put it in an oven, and once it’s fully dry, grind it into powder.